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      Black Cohosh root research

      Native American herbal practitioners most commonly used Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) root as a relaxant and for balancing female sex hormones. While in Korea it has traditionally been used for the treatment of rheumatic pain

      Potential Dangers

      Black cohosh is not recommended for pregnant women because its potential effects on the uterus may induce early labour. There are other contraindications which can be viewed on our black cohosh herbal remedy information page.

      Premenstrual syndrome

      Several studies in humans suggest that black cohosh may be safe and effective for improving symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, migraine headache and sleep disturbances. However, only short-term use of black cohosh for menopausal symptoms has been evaluated. As with so much research on complementary medicines some of the studies have been small and do not meet the full requirements of western medicine for double blind trials

      Breast cancer

      A 2007 study by  Dr T R Rebbeck of the University of Pennsylvania indicated that women taking black cohosh were 60% less likely to develop breast cancer. More research was recommended before Black cohosh became a recommened treatment. For more details click here


      Black cohosh has been used as an agent for pain and inflammation in Korean folk medicine. Although some research suggests that herbal preparations containing black cohosh may improve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, many other herbs have been present in these preparations. There is currently not enough evidence from studies in humans to support the use of black cohosh as a stand alone treatment for arthritis

      - Source: Aetna Intelihealth: Black cohosh

      Research involving Black Cohosh and the Menopause or PMS

      Authoritative body

      - National Institute of Health. Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt.).


      - ESCOP monographs, second edition, 2003, page 79-91, Cimicifuga Rhizoma Black Cohosh.

      - WHO monograph on selected medicinal plants, vol. 2, page 55-65, Rhizoma Cimicifugae Racemosae


      - North American Menopause Society. Treatment of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2004;11(1):11-33.

      - Amato P, Marcus DM. Review of alternative therapies for treatment of menopausal symptoms. Climacteric 2003;Dec, 6(4):278-284. Review.

      - Borrelli F, Ernst E. Cimicifuga racemosa: asystematic review of its clinical efficacy. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;58(4):235-41

      - CKF. Master file Cimicifugae Racemosae Rhizoma, May 2006

      - Dog TL, Powell KL, Weisman SM. Critical evaluation of the safety of Cimicifuga racemosa in menopause symptom relief. Menopause. 2003;10(4):299-313.

      - Huntley A, Ernst E. A systematic review of the safety of black cohosh. Menopause. 2003;10(1):58-64.

      - Huntley AL, Ernst E. A systematic review of herbal medicinal products for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Menopause 2003;Sep-Oct, 10(5):465-476.

      - Kronenberg F, Fugh-Berman A. Complementary and alternative medicine for menopausal symptoms: a review of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med. 2002;19;137(10):805-13.

      - Viereck V, Emons G, Wuttke W. Black cohosh: just another phytoestrogen? Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2005;16(5):214-21.

      Individual studies

      - Bodinet C, Freudenstein J. Influence of Cimicifuga racemosa on the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2002;76:1-10.

      - Bodinet C, Freudenstein J. Influence of marketed herbal menopause preparations on MCF-7 cell proliferation. Menopause 2004;11:281-9.

      -Burke BE, Olson RD, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of phytoestrogen in the prophylactic treatment of menstrual migraine. Biomed Pharmacother 2002;Aug, 56(6):283-288

      - Einbond LS, Shimizu M, Xiao D, Nuntanakorn P, Lim JTE, Suzui M, Seter C,

      Pertel T, Kennelly EJ, Kronenberg F, Weinstein IB. Growth inhibitory activity of extracts and purified components of black cohosh on human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2004;83:221-31

      - Fugate SE, Church CO. Nonestrogen treatment modalities for vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. Ann Pharmacother 2004;Sep, 38(9):1482-1499. Epub 2004;Aug, 03.

      - Hardy ML. Herbs of special interest to women. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash) 2000;40(2):234-242

      - Hernandez Munoz G, Pluchino S. Cimicifuga racemosa for the treatment of hot Maturitas;44(suppl. 1):S59-65.

      - Hostanska K, Nisslein T, Freudenstein J, Reichling J, Saller R. Cimicifuga racemosa extract inhibits proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive and negative human breast carcinoma cell lines by induction of apoptosis. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2004;84:151-60.

      - Huntley A. The safety of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Cimicifuga racemosa). Expert Opin Drug Saf 2004;Nov, 3(6):615-623

      -Jacobson JS, Troxel AB, Evans J, et al. Randomized trial of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes among women with a history of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2001;19(10):2739-2745

      - Lieberman S. A review of the effectiveness of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) for the symptoms of menopause. J Women's Health 1998;7(5):525-529.

      - Liske E, Hanggi W, Henneicke-von Zepelin HH, et al. Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma): a 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2002;11(2):163-174

      - Liske E. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of Cimicifuga racemosa for gynecologic disorders. Adv Ther 1998;15(1):45-53

      - Lupu R, Mehmi I, et al. Black cohosh, a menopausal remedy, does not have estrogenic activity and does not promote breast cancer cell growth. Int J Oncol 2003;Nov, 23(5):1407-1412

      - Mahady GB, Parrot J, et al. Botanical dietary supplement use in peri- and postmenopausal women. Menopause 2003;Jan-Feb, 10(1):65-72

      - Mahady GB, Fabricant D, et al. Black cohosh: an alternative therapy for menopause? Nutr Clin Care 2002;Nov-Dec, 5(6):283-289.

      -Moyad MA. Complementary/alternative therapies for reducing hot flashes in prostate cancer patients: reevaluating the existing indirect data from studies of breast cancer and postmenopausal women. Urology 2002;59(4 Suppl 1):20-33.

      -Neff MJ. NAMS releases position statement on the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. Am Fam Physician 2004;Jul 15, 70(2):393-394, 396, 399.

      - Osmers R, Friede M, Liske E, Schnitker J, Freudenstein J, Henneicke-von Zepelin EE. Efficacy and safety of isopropanolic Black Cohosh extract for climacteric symptoms. Obstet. Gynecol. 2005;105:1074-1083.

      - Pockaj BA, Loprinzi CL, Sloan JA, et al. Pilot evaluation of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes in women. Cancer Invest 2004;22(4):515-521.

      - Rockwell S, Liu Y, Higgins SA. Alteration of the effects of cancer therapy agents on breast cancer cells by the herbal medicine black cohosh. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2005;90:233-9.

      - Sun J. Morning/evening menopausal formula relieves menopausal symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 2003;9(3):403-409

      - Warnecke G. Using phyto-treatment to influence menopause symptoms. Med Welt 1985;36:871-874

      - Wuttke W, Seidlova-Wuttke D, Gorkow C. The Cimicifuga preparation BNO 1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a double-blind placebo-controlled study: effects on menopause symptoms and bone markers. Maturitas 2003;44(suppl. 1):S67-77.

      Further research involving Black cohosh

      .-Cohen SM, O'Connor AM, et al. Autoimmune hepatitis associated with the use of black cohosh: a case study. Menopause 2004;Sep-Oct, 11(5):575-577.

      -Fugh-Berman A. "Bust enhancing" herbal products. Obstet Gynecol 2003;Jun, 101(6):1345-1349.

      -Kligler B. Black cohosh. Am Fam Physician 2003;Jul 1, 68(1):114-116.

      -Liske E, Wüstenberg P, Boblitz N. Human-pharmacological investigations during treatment of climacteric complaints with Cimicifuga racemosa (Remifemin): no estrogen-like effects. ESCOP 2001;1:1.

      -Lontos S, Jones RM, et al. Acute liver failure associated with the use of herbal preparations containing black cohosh. Med J Aust 2003;Oct 6, 179(7):390-391.

      -McKenna DJ, Jones K, Humphrey S, et al. Black cohosh: efficacy, safety, and use in clinical and preclinical applications. Altern Ther Health Med 2001;7(3):93-100.

      - Pepping J. Black cohosh: Cimicifuga racemosa. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56(14):1400-1402.

      - Rock E, Demichele A. Nutritional approaches to late toxicities of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer survivors. J Nutr 2003;133(11 Suppl 1):3785S-3793S..

      - Thomsen M, Vitetta L, et al. Acute liver failure associated with the use of herbal preparations containing black cohosh. Med J Aust 2003;Oct 6, 179(7):390-391.

      - Vitetta L, Thomsen M, et al. Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. Med J Aust 2002;Oct 21, 177(8):440-443.

      Using Black Cohosh as a herbal remedy

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Black cohosh herbal remedy


black cohosh tincture can help with menopausal symptoms and PMS







black cohosh tincture can help with menopausal symptoms and PMS





black cohosh tincture can help with menopausal symptoms and PMS






black cohosh tincture can help with menopausal symptoms and PMS





























black cohosh tincture can help with menopausal symptoms and PMS





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